In recent decades, the percentage of adults and children with overweight and obese has increased considerably.
Obesity is associated with higher cancer risks, as also a higher risk of coronary heart disease of the heart, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and many other chronic diseases.
But before define, what is obesity?
Obesity is a State in which the person has an abnormally high, unhealthy proportion of fat in the body.
To measure obesity, researchers ordinarily use a scale known as BMI (BMI) (body mass index, BMI, in English). BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters) squared. The body mass index provides a more accurate measure of obesity or overweight than just weight.
The National Institute of heart, lung and blood, NHLBI, provides a BMI calculator.
For children and adolescents (less than 20 years of age), the overweight and obesity are based on tables of the centres for the Control and prevention of diseases (CDC) on the growth of the BMI according to age.
- Compared with people of normal weight, people who are overweight or obese have one greater risk of many diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke and some cancers.
- What is known of the relationship between obesity and cancer? Obesity is also associated with greater risks of the following types of cancer, and possibly other cancers:
- Colon and rectum
- Sine (after menopause)
- Endometrium (the lining of the uterus)
One study, which used data from the program of the NCI’s surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER), calculated that a projection of future assessment of obesity on the economy and health in 2030, if existing trends in obesity continue will be almost 500 000 additional cases of cancer in the United States. This analysis also found that if each adult reduced their BMI by 1%, which would amount to lose weight more or less 1kg (or 2.2 pounds) in an adult of average weight, this would prevent the increase in the number of cases of cancer and would actually prevent nearly 100 000 new cases of cancer. Several possible mechanisms to explain the association between obesity and increased risk of some cancers have been suggested:
- Adipose (fatty) tissue produce quantities in excess of estrogen, and high concentrations of this hormone have been associated with the risk of breast, endometrial and other cancers.
- Obese people have often increased levels of insulin and growth factor such as the insulin-1 (IGF-1) in their blood (a condition known as insulin resistance or hyperinsulinaemia), which can promote the growth of some tumors.
- Fat cells produce hormones, called adipocytokines, which can stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, leptin, which is more abundant in obese people, it seems that promotes cell proliferation, while that adiponectin, which is less abundant in obese people, antiproliferative effects it can have.
- Fat cells may also have direct and indirect effects on other regulators of growth of tumors, including protein kinase activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR) and adenosine monophosphate, (adenosine monophosphate, AMP).
- Obese people has frequently chronic inflammation to a degree lower or “sub-agudo”, which is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Other possible mechanisms are altered imnunitarias reactions, effects of the system of nuclear factor kappa beta and oxidative stress.
- It reduces the risk of cancer if it thins or avoided gaining weight? The best way to check if it will lower the risk of cancer to slimming or avoid gaining weight is through a controlled clinical study. Some studies funded by the NIHpara lose weight have proven that people can lose weight, and that the weight loss decreases your risk of developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, and at the same time improve their heart disease risk factors. However, previous studies and the results of a workshop of the NCI have shown that it would not be feasible to carry out a study for slimming as cancer prevention. The reason is that it would demonstrate the effect of weight loss on the prevention of other chronic diseases, and therefore would stop the study to inform the public of the benefits prior to being obvious effect in the prevention of cancer. Therefore, the majority of data concerning if lose weight or prevent weight prevent cancer originate mainly from studies of cohort and case-control studies. It can be difficult to interpret the data of these types of studies, called deobservacion, because people slimming or to avoid gaining weight may be different in other aspects of the people who do that, not as obese people may be different from the thin people in other aspects that are not body mass index. I.e., it is possible that these other differences explain their different cancer risk. However, many observational studies have shown that people that increases less weight during their adult life have one lower risk of:
- Colon cancer
- (After menopause) breast cancer
- Endometrial cancer
A more limited number of observational studies have examined the relationship between weight loss and cancer risk, and a few have found risks that are less cancer of breast and colon cancer in people who have lost weight. However, most of these studies have not been able to assess whether the thinning was intentional or was related to other health problems. Firmer evidence comes from studies of patients who have Bariatric Surgery for weight loss. It seems that obese people who becomes bariatric surgery has less rates of cancers related to obesity that obese people who did not bariatric surgery. It is important to note that while the majority of interventions in the lifestyle for weight loss result in a weight loss of 7 to 10% of the body weight, the slimming by Bariatric Surgery combined with lifestyle changes usually results in a weight loss of 30%.
In clinic Tarrazo we are experts for more than 20 years in the area north of Madrid in dietary treatments. For us the weight isn’t the only factor that matters. It is essential to the composition of the body mass: know how much of that weight is water, fat, and muscle. For this purpose we have computerized equipment that allow us to perform a full body scan of our patient. In this way, treatments appropriate to each person and precise parameters are established. In periodic check-ups parameters are compared with previous ones. Our goal is to provide our patients health and welfare, reducing body weight and at the same time we move away cardiovascular risk factors that can lead to disastrous consequences as the vascular and how not to mention those of the musculoskeletal system that limit the life of patients at a young age affecting the joints and the spine that sustain us. Since our treatments are personalized and controlled by our physician, if uste requires drugs contributing to your diet also might prescribe is thus how the recommendation of any of the techniques by endoscopy or by laparoscopic surgery that today enable various forms the reduction of stomach in a way simple or more aggressive depending on the cases.